PC Gamer

Image via defunct gaming site Freakygaming.

WASD feels inevitable today. Once mouselook became standard in 3D games, it made little sense (at least for right-handed players) to hold your left arm across your chest to reach the arrow keys. The WASD keys were more comfortable, and offered easy access to Shift and Space. But even though WASD seems like the obvious choice now, far fewer players used it 20 years ago.

Our favorite four letter word was never a foregone conclusion, and didn't become standard through some gaseous enlightening that spread to every PC gamer simultaneously. The new movement scheme took several years to catch on, and while we can t know whose fingers found their way to WASD first, we do have a good idea of who popularized the style: the greatest Quake player in the universe, Dennis Thresh Fong.

Fong made history when he took home John Carmack's Ferrari 328 after winning the first-ever nationwide Quake tournament in 1997. And when he won that tournament, defeating Tom "Entropy" Kimzey on Castle of the Damned, his right hand was on a mouse, and his left hand was perched over the four keys we now consider synonymous with PC gaming. But even then, not everyone played that way.

His brother was playing with a keyboard and trackball, and he was winning.

In the early days of first-person shooters, Fong says the keymappings were all over the place, and even the great Thresh had only just started to play with a mouse at all. Imagine him just a few years before, sometime around 1993, as a teenager losing a match of Doom against his brother Lyle. Like many Doom players, Fong used only the keyboard. Without the need to look up or down, it was a natural choice so much that using a mouse was even considered weird. His brother, however, was playing with a keyboard and trackball, and he was winning. It wasn t every game both were excellent players but Lyle won enough that one summer Fong decided he had to learn to play with a mouse. After that, he was unbeatable.

Right after I made that switch, my skill improved exponentially, says Fong. Pretty much, from then on, I never lost.

It took some experimentation including a strange attempt to move with WADX but Fong settled on WASD and has been using it since Doom. Did he invent the scheme? No, probably not. Others were also gravitating to the left side of the keyboard for Doom at the same time. But without Fong's influence, the default could have ended up different. It might have been EDSF, or stranger configurations like ZXC to strafe and move backwards, and the right mouse button to move forwards. Some early shooters bound movement to the arrow keys. In 1994, System Shock used ASDX, while Descent used AZ for forward/reverse and QE for banking (if you didn't happen to have a joystick).

Fong tells us he even knew a player who used ZXCV to move.

I m certainly not going to take credit for the creation of [WASD], says Fong. I stumbled across it. I m sure other people started using it as well just based on what was comfortable for them. I definitely think I helped popularize it with a certain set of gamers, particularly the ones that played first person shooters."

Quake wasn't the first game to introduce mouselook (Marathon came before it), but it was the most influential.

It s likely that he did. The very concept of a professional gamer was new at the time, and Fong was well-known on the west coast as the best player around. As Fong s celebrity grew, the one question everyone asked him was: What s your config? His answer could be most readily found in Thresh s Quake Bible, which describes the WASD formation as an inverted T. And his guide carried weight. Even before his success as a Quake player, Fong was a Doom champion, and so people imitated him, just as the kids at the basketball court by my house spend far too much time trying to hit Steph Curry s 30-foot shots.

The evidence can be found on old bulletin board systems. In one thread from 1997, a poster recommends using Q and E to strafe and A and D to turn. Another suggests using the keypad for movement, and someone else says they use A, Shift, Z, X. It wasn't the case that everyone simply gravitated to the 'obvious' choice of WASD or ESDF, and in another thread, we see how Thresh's performance in the Quake tournament spread his style. His play was so impressive, the poster looking for his config speculates that it was impossible for him to turn so fast with a mouse.

Another legend, Quake programmer John Carmack, took note. Even when I was hanging out with Carmack, wherever, at E3, random people would come up and he would hear them asking me what my configuration was, says Fong. So he ended up building a Thresh stock config into Quake 2.

It was a relief. Not only could Fong sit down at any computer with Quake 2 and instantly load his configuration, every time he got the question, all he had to say was type exec thresh.cfg.

Half-Life was one of the first games to bind WASD to movement by default.

Convenient as it was, Fong doesn t think the inclusion of his config was the main factor in the rise of WASD, and I d agree. By the time Quake 2 was out, WASD was starting to feel like common knowledge. I used it, and I don t remember hearing Thresh s name associated with it at the time, though it s possible his configuration entered my consciousness two or three people removed.

And yet games, strangely, took a while to catch up. Carmack may have bundled Thresh s config with Quake 2, but when it released in 1997 the default controls were still arrow keys. A year later, though, that changed. If Thresh's Quake tournament win was WASD's first watershed moment, the second came in 1998 with the release of Half-Life. The Quake and Doom players at Valve perhaps influenced directly or indirectly by Carmack, Thresh, and other top Doom and Quake players included WASD in Half-Life s default keyboard and mouse config, which helped solidify it as the first-person shooter standard.

Valve engineer Yahn Bernier checked Half-Life's original config file for us and confirmed it included WASD. "I remember finalizing this file (maybe with Steve Bond) during the lead up to shipping HL1 but don t recall specifics about when WASD was settled on or really why. We probably carried it forward from Quake1 " he wrote in an email.

The same year, and less than a month after Half-Life, Starsiege Tribes also made WASD default. Quake 3 followed suit in 1999, and WASD's popularity grew even more. It was also the default binding in 2000's Daikatana, but Half-Life, Tribes, and Quake 3 probably had a bit more to do with its popularity.

In a period of a year, Half-Life, Tribes, and Quake 3 set the standard we use today.

I always rebind to ESDF.

Gabe Newell

There were still plenty of heretical control schemes in 1999 like System Shock 2's, which defaulted to WADX (and S for crouch). But WASD had momentum. If it wasn t already ubiquitous by 2004, World of Warcraft defaulting to WASD codified it for millions of PC gamers. Now it s in RPGs and MOBAs and even strategy games, controlling camera movement over maps.

Interestingly, Valve boss Gabe Newell doesn t use WASD. I personally don't like WASD as it takes your hand away from your typing home keys, he wrote in an email to PC Gamer. I always rebind to ESDF. Newell's not alone there. Do a little Googling and you'll find plenty of people arguing that ESDF is the more natural configuration.

More surprisingly, another Half-Life developer, level designer Dario Casali, also rejects WASD. Instead, he prefers ASXC. It feels natural to me, where WASD feels odd, wrote Casali. But lots of people scoff at my config.

What would PC gaming be like had EDSF or ASXC been Half-Life s default? No offense intended to Newell or Casali, but I shudder to think of it. ASXC just sounds bonkers to me. Newell's fairly commonplace ESDF is more palatable, but as Thresh echoes, it feels harder to hit Shift and Control while easier to mispress one of the surrounding keys. For me, Thresh, and millions of PC gamers, it s WASD for life.

You can read more about the history of Quake in our retrospective celebrating Quake's 20th anniversary. We're also celebrating by running a Quake server through the weekend, and Thresh himself will be playing on our US-West server today, Friday, from 3:30 pm - 4:30 pm Pacific time.

Wes Fenlon also contributed to this article.

PC Gamer

There's lots of competitive gaming to watch this weekend, from top-tier Hearthstone and Street Fighter V to the Dota 2 scene's frantic scramble to make it to this year's International. Skilled players will win thousands of dollars over the next two days: an impressive sum in and of itself if you're American, getting more impressive with every minute that passes if you're British.

Hearthstone: Americas Spring Championship

Starting at 09:00 PDT/18:00 CEST on both Saturday and Sunday, this is a showcase of top talent in the American Hearthstone scene. There's $80,000 on the line, as well as a spot at the Global Finals at BlizzCon. Here's the stream.

Dota 2: The International 2016 Regional Qualifiers

Qualification for the remaining spots at The International begins tomorrow. Play begins at 18:00 PDT on Friday night/03:00 CEST in SEA and at 01:00 PDT/10:00 CEST in Europe. As Europe wraps up, expect play to begin in North America followed by China. It's a packed schedule, so check out GosuGamer's match page for the latest info and stream links.

CSGO: Esports Championship Series

FaceIt's Esports Championship Series concludes this weekend with a dramatic faceoff between the world's best teams in London. You can find the livestream and schedule information on the official site. Up-to-date schedule information is missing at the moment, but expect play throughout the day on British time (CEST-1).

League of Legends: NA Championship Series

Another weekend of play in the NA LCS. Games run today and continue throughout the weekend, starting at 12:00 PDT/21:00 CEST each day and continuing for four-five hours. As ever, the best resource for further information and livestreams is lolesports.com.

Overwatch: OG Invitational

One of the biggest events in NA Overwatch so far, the OG Invitational has a $25,000 prize pool and showcases the region's best teams. Play begins at 10:00 PDT/19:00 CEST and you'll find the livestream right here.

Rocket League: Qualifier 2 Group Stage

After a few weeks of open qualifiers, the pool narrows. NA is playing on Saturday starting at 12:00 PDT/21:00 CEST and Europe plays on Sunday from 09:00 PDT/18:00 CEST. Here's the livestream.

Street Fighter V: CEO 2016

One of the liveliest events in the Street Fighter V calendar, Andi sung the praises of CEO in his column this week. It's a premier event, so expect a very high standard of play. You can find the extensive schedule here and the action will be streamed on Twitch.

Community Announcements - Ward


Immortal Treasure II is now available, and includes items for Windranger, Undying, Riki, Morphling, Lich, Earthshaker, Mirana, and Invoker. All Battle Pass owners can find their unlocked treasure ready to open in the Armory. This treasure features escalating odds—each one you open increases your chances to receive a bonus rare Mirana item, a very rare golden version of the Riki item, or an ultra rare Invoker Immortal bundle, each with their own independent escalating odds chance. Level up your Battle Pass to unlock more treasures. 25% of all level sales will go directly to The International 2016 prize pool. Head over to the Battle Pass website for a preview of the custom spell effects contained in the new Immortal Treasure.

As another bonus for Battle Pass owners, we have also added new in-game Battle Predictions, which will allow in-client spectators of the Regional Qualifiers to make predictions based on in-game events. Correctly guess the number of Roshan kills, the hero with the highest net worth, which team will destroy the first barracks, and much more—the available predictions will differ each game. Make enough correct calls to earn up to three Achievements and their accompanying Battle Point rewards. Each correct prediction will be added to your overall tally and can be tracked in the Achievement tab until all three are completed.

For a chance at more Battle Points, click over to the Compendium section of your Battle Pass to predict which teams will win the four Regional Qualifiers and punch their tickets to Seattle. With the Open Qualifiers wrapping up on June 24, and the Regionals set to run June 25 - 28, make sure to get your predictions in before 7:00 p.m. PDT on June 24.

This update also includes added support for resizing the mouse cursor in the Options menu, a change to reduce hitching when watching replays, and some improvements to bot behavior. Additionally, the inaugural Battle Cup is almost here, and details on the beta tournament will be available soon.
PC Gamer

The Steam Summer Sale is on! Lots of good deals to be had, including the famous team-based FPS Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, which is currently half-price that's $7.50/ 6. There's a catch, though, and it's kind of a strange one: If you buy it during the Summer Sale, you can't gift it to someone else.

The restriction came to light on Reddit, when a CS:GO redditor said he was unable to buy the game as a gift and asked if anyone else had experienced the same thing. A Valve rep quickly stepped in to confirm that everyone would experience the same thing.

CS:GO will not be giftable during the sale, the rep said. Our goal with sales is to grow the community and historically, during sales, the new users that stick around are mainly the ones that purchase copies for themselves.

That sounds to me like a nice way of saying that Valve wants to crack down on alt-accounts, which is understandable and even admirable, since it's effectively prioritize that over sales of the game. It's a bit surprising that there's no up-front warning of the game's current ungiftability, though; it's not like people are losing money on it, but a heads-up would go a long way toward avoiding unhappy surprises.

(And if you do actually want to gift it to someone? Just PayPal 'em the money or wait until the sale's over.)

Product Update - Valve
An update to Team Fortress 2 has been released. The update will be applied automatically when you restart Team Fortress 2. The major changes include:

  • Fixed Mannpower and PASS Time game modes showing up in the wrong quickplay UI categories.
TF2 Blog
An update to Team Fortress 2 has been released. The update will be applied automatically when you restart Team Fortress 2. The major changes include:
  • Fixed Mannpower and PASS Time game modes showing up in the wrong quickplay UI categories.
TF2 Blog
An update to Team Fortress 2 has been released. The update will be applied automatically when you restart Team Fortress 2. The major changes include:
  • Internal system changes in preparation for a future update
  • Updated the localization files
Product Update - Valve
An update to Team Fortress 2 has been released. The update will be applied automatically when you restart Team Fortress 2. The major changes include:

  • Internal system changes in preparation for a future update
  • Updated the localization files
PC Gamer

So you ve won the pistol round, and you re now looking to get an even bigger advantage over your opponent. It s enormously important that you manage your economy correctly at this point: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive is a game where you can lose a match because you bought too much or underspent at the wrong moment.

Having won the pistol round, the second round is when you ll want to start building your economic advantage. You do this by investing in SMGs. All of them except the P90 have a kill bonus of $600, which is twice as much as kills with pistols or assault rifles. Only shotguns offer better bang for your buck, with $900 per kill. While shotguns can be very effective at short range or in tight corridors, however, you ll find yourself in a bad position when either taking or retaking a bomb site.

For this reason, SMGs offer a better deal most of the time. One thing to remember, particularly on the T side, is to work together during this crucial round. If the CTs have bought Five-Sevens, for instance, they might headshot you before you get in close. This results in a valuable gun lost and a chance for them to win the round.

 When to use each SMG

The MP9 is exclusive to the CTs. It does low damage and has poor armor penetration but only costs $1250. However, it s easy to control while moving around and has insanely high rate of fire. Even if every bullet does little damage on its own, you can easily melt an unarmored enemy. Against armored enemies, the key is to stay very close.

If you win the pistol round but the Ts managed to plant the bomb, they re likely to save in the second round in order to go for a full buy the round after. In this scenario the MP9 is a great choice. Just make sure you have a teammate ready to clean up in case you get overrun. The MP9 is also good for aggressive play.

The T counterpart to the MP9 is the MAC-10. At $1050 it s the cheapest SMG in the game. Its properties are pretty much the same as the MP9 s, which makes it an excellent weapon to use if you re the first player in when you attack. You create distraction and spray down enemies who happen to be too close to you. This creates more space for your teammates with more powerful weapons to clean up the site.

The MP7 ($1700) has slightly lower rate of fire than the MP9 and MAC-10, but its first bullet accuracy is a little higher, making it possible to strafe and burst heads at medium range. Other than that you should use it like you use the SMGs above. It is a bit heavier, which slows you down to 220 units per second as opposed to 240 for the MP9 and MAC-10. You ll rarely use the MP7 as it s an awkward mix of the cheap SMGs and the UMP-45. It s more effective to have some players go for the UMP-45 and others the MP9 and MAC-10 than to go for a hybrid.

The UMP-45 is a badass weapon. If it weren t enough that it does a lot of damage and has great armor penetration, it also fires at 666 RPM. It s considerably slower than all of the above mentioned weapons, but it s a lot more accurate at medium range. If you expect your enemies to buy armor, the UMP-45 is an excellent choice. It costs $1200, which is insanely cheap considering you can hold on to it going into the first weapon round.

The P90 is by far the best SMG when it comes to killing enemies, especially armored ones. It does however cost $2350 and only gives you $300 per kill, which makes it a good choice for those rounds when your team wants to buy full but one player can t afford armor and an assault rifle. I strongly recommend that you use the $600-bonus SMGs in the second round even if you can afford something more expensive.

 SMGs on the first gun round

This topic has been widely discussed within the competitive scene. If you ve won all rounds leading up to the first gun round, the other team will go for a full buy. Should you keep your SMG or upgrade to an assault rifle? In my opinion it s often wise to stick to your SMG. Why? Because the more consecutive rounds you lose, the more money you get at the start of a new round (this caps out at $3400). The first round you lose will give you $1400, which isn t a lot.

There are two possible outcomes of the first gun round: you either win or you lose. If you win, that means you ll get $600 per kill and you won a round without investing in a new weapon. If you lose you still get $600 for every kill you get, but more importantly: the other team wins. Because you didn t buy an assault rifle you ll have more than enough to buy one following that lost round. If you manage to win that round it means the other team s economy has been reset and they ll have to force buy or eco. Basically, keeping your SMG going into the first gun round is a low risk, high reward gamble.

Find all of our other Counter-Strike: Global Offensive guides here:

Inferno Counter-Terrorist guideInferno Terrorist guideCache Counter-Terrorist guideCache Terrorist guideOverpass Counter-Terrorist guideOverpass Terrorist guideCobblestone Counter-Terrorist guideCobblestone Terrorist guideTrain Counter-Terrorist guideTrain Terrorist guideMirage Counter-Terrorist guideMirage Terrorist guideDust2 Counter-Terrorist guideDust2 Terrorist guideSupport role guideEntry fragger role guideLurker role guideAWPer role guideTeam leader guide

Product Update - Valve
- Ranked matchmaking is now unlocked at badge level 20. (Previously it was based on the level of your experience trophy.) Any account that does not meet the new requirement but has played at least one ranked game will continue to have access to ranked matchmaking.
- Fixed a bug with the Aghanim's upgraded Earthshaker's Enchant Totem which caused the effective cast range to be incorrect.
- Fixed a rare client crash with Techies' Arcana and Suicide Squad Attack!
- Fixed a rare case where Eul's Scepter, Life Stealer's Infest and Ursa's Enrage may not have prevented damage the moment they were applied.
- Granted points for Manila Predictions.
...

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