Steam Blog - Valve
A Vulkan-compatible driver for macOS and iOS, MoltenVK, is now available free of charge and open-source. Having invested into its development for more than a year, we have sponsored The Brenwill Workshop to donate MoltenVK for inclusion in the Vulkan graphics ecosystem. We've also continued our efforts with LunarG who is today releasing a corresponding update to deliver macOS support to the Vulkan SDK. Also as a result of that work, Dota 2 will be updated in the comings months to target Vulkan on macOS.

It's been almost four years since we started contributing to Vulkan's goal of becoming a cross platform solution. With support for Windows, Linux, and Android crossed off the list, this latest set of updates checks off one of the largest remaining targets, giving developers an easy yet robust way to also target their Vulkan-based engines and titles to run on macOS and iOS. By making the code to MoltenVK freely available and open-source, the goal is to enable developers to bring their games to macOS and iOS with minimal evelopment cost.

The LunarG Vulkan SDK is a key component for developers targeting Vulkan by providing tools such as validation layers, shader compilers, and a loader. Now available from LunarG, an updated Vulkan SDK now offers those same tools to developers targeting macOS, enabling them to efficiently develop Vulkan code on the platform.

Additionally, we exercised MoltenVK with real world workloads including Dota 2 and we're seeing significant performance improvements over running on OpenGL.

We encourage developers to test their engines and titles with MoltenVK and the LunarG SDK and provide feedback. We are committed to making Vulkan a viable option for developers targeting all platforms.
- Alden
Today we rolled out an update giving you more control over your Steam Wishlist. This update adds more filtering and sorting options, and shows more relevant information such as Early Access state, review score, and ‘add to cart’ buttons (when available). Below we’ll go into a bit more details on what has changed, or you can just check out your Wishlist at

More Relevant Information and Filters
When we started planning out the set of improvements to players’ Wishlists, we began with the frequent requests we see from the community. We've heard that players wanted to see a few key pieces of information on their wishlist and more ways to sort and filter.

So here are the key pieces we’ve added so far:

  • Steam has long shown the discount and price for items on your Wishlist, but there hasn’t been a way of sorting or filtering based on discounts. This can be frustrating when trying to find items during a large Steam sale or to finding purchases at particular prices. Now you can filter items shown on your Wishlist by levels of discount like 50% off or 75% off. You can also filter by various tiers of price, or filter to only see items you can buy with your current Steam Wallet balance.
  • We’ve also heard a lot of requests for the ability to filter your Wishlist by tags or genres to help find games when you’re in the mood for a strategy game or an RPG. So now Steam displays the top-ranked tags for each item on your Wishlist. Clicking any of those tags will filter your Wishlist to just other titles with that same tag applied. This makes it easy to find the best co-op games on your Wishlist, or quickly find a discounted horror game.
  • Many players have reported that they find a promising game currently in Early Access that they want to keep track of, but aren’t interested in buying until the game has transitioned to full release. Now your Wishlist will reflect if a game is currently in Early Access, and we’ve added a filter option to hide those games until they have transitioned from Early Access to full release.
  • Players frequently add unreleased games to their Wishlist, which is a helpful way to express interest in an upcoming release and be notified when the game releases. But between now and that title’s release, it isn’t always helpful to see those unreleased selections when you’re shopping for something to play now. So we added the release date to each Wishlist item along with a filter option to hide unreleased games until they become available.

Note: The combination of filters and sort-orders that you pick will automatically save and apply when you visit your Wishlist again in the future.

Add to Cart Directly From Wishlist
Another frequently requested feature was the ability to add items to your cart directly from your Wishlist. On the surface this seemed like a straight-forward request, and in most cases it turned out to work just fine. However, we found that there are cases where it isn’t always clear which version of the game should be added to the cart. For example, some games have a Deluxe Edition or multiple Starter Pack options that make the offer more complicated. Some games even add or change the offers available over time, so we wouldn’t want to make assumptions about which version you are ultimately interested in when you hit ‘add to cart’. With that in mind, games with a single purchase option can now be added directly to your cart, but for games with alternative purchase options, you can click through to the store page to find the right option for you.

As always, we’d like to hear what you think about these changes, and whether there are more wishlist features you'd like to see.

-The Steam Team
- Alden
This year we’re taking a look back at the best-performing games with five new “Best of 2017” lists.

Last year’s Top-Sellers list proved to be quite popular, so we wanted to update that list and expand on it by highlighting the variety of ways games achieved success on Steam in 2017.

Top Sellers
We started by looking at the top-sellers again. We ran the numbers to come up with the list of the games that earned the most revenue during 2017, including all forms of Steam revenue; game sales, in-game transactions, and DLC. So, like last year, the resulting list includes a mix of free-to-play games as well as premium games.

Without further ado, here are the Top Selling Games of 2017

Top New Releases
We thought that it might also be interesting to look at the top-selling games that released during 2017. This one was a bit trickier to put together in a way that fairly represented games released throughout the year. For example, if we just looked at total revenue earned by games released during the year, the list would strongly favor games released early in the year, as they have had more months to earn sales. To counter that effect, we could look at the average money-per-day earned by games released in 2017, but that ends up biasing strongly in favor of games released late in the year, as initial launch-week sales spikes are typically much stronger than following weeks and months.

Ultimately, we weren’t happy with any single metric as determination of the popular releases throughout the year, so we used the games from all of these lists and split them out by the month they released. The result is a list of games released each month during 2017 that achieved a sizable level of commercial success. Top games released in January are based more on their overall gross revenue while games released later in the year are selected more based on initial week sales and average daily revenue.

Here are the Top Selling New Releases of 2017

(Note: any of the measures above for new releases will under-count free-to-play games, which tend to grow in revenue over time rather than having an initial sales spike like premium games.)

Best Selling VR Titles
We have seen over 1,000 new VR titles come out this year, including blockbusters such as Fallout 4 VR, SUPERHOT VR, and Rick and Morty: Virtual Rick-ality, as well as continued popularity of last year’s releases like Arizona Sunshine, RAW DATA, and Job Simulator. As VR continues to grow as a platform unto itself, we wanted to put together a list of this year’s top-selling VR games to highlight the variety of interesting VR experiences that are being bought and played.

Here are the Top Selling VR Experiences of 2017

Top Early Access Grads
The number of notable titles launching through the Early Access program continued to expand in 2017 with titles like PLAYERUNKNOWN'S BATTLEGROUNDS, Oxygen Not Included, Northgard, Dead Cells, and Blackwake. Meanwhile, we’ve seen a number of hugely popular Early Access games make the transition to full release (hello, PUBG!). So, we decided to make a list of all the top-selling games that graduated from Early Access this year.

Here are the Top Early Access Graduates of 2017

Top Played Games
Finally, we wanted to see what people were spending time playing, and how that compared with the games that players were spending money on. So we put together a list of games based on the peak number of simultaneous players. We originally set out to create a top-100 list, but found a slightly longer list (107) that achieved a peak number of simultaneous players over 15,000 and felt it was worth recognizing them all. To fully recognize the games that have built a significant player base, we’ve excluded a few titles that only had short-term spikes in player count due to running giveaways.

In the process of putting this list together, we found that there is a lot of overlap in the lists of top-selling games and top-played games, with 71 titles on both lists.

Here are the Most Played Games of 2017

About the Lists
Specific revenue for the lists are not disclosed, but the leading sellers are broken into the following four categories to give an idea of how they placed:
- Platinum: The first thru 12th best seller
- Gold: 13th - 24th best seller
- Silver: 25th - 40th top seller
- Bronze: 41st - 100th top seller

Also, don’t forget that later this week, the winners of the second annual Steam Awards will be revealed. You have a couple more days to vote on the last categories, and to be part of history!

-The Steam Team
- Alden
After testing in a small beta for the past couple of weeks, we're releasing the latest update to the Steam Curators system today, which includes a bunch of improvements for players, curators, and game developers.

In short: We've made it easier to find and follow Steam Curators that you know and trust, we've provided Curators with more ways to improve your Steam shopping experience, and we've built better tools for developers to connect with the right Steam Curators. You can see a summary of the new features highlighted on the Steam Curator Update Announcement page. Read on for a more detailed look at why we think Steam Curators are important and why you'll now find it even more beneficial to follow a Steam Curator or two.

Why Steam Curators?
The goal of the Steam Curator system is to give you options for the individuals and organizations that can curate your Steam shopping experience. There are already people you probably look to for advice on which games are worth your time and money, such as YouTubers, journalists, streamers, or online communities. We've built Steam Curators to be a place where those voices and tastes can directly improve your shopping experience by influencing which games you'll see and what other information about games you can find. For example, you may appreciate the in-depth reviews provided by PC Gamer or the video reviews recorded by Extra Credits. You may like RPG Watch's focus on selecting just well-made role-playing games or you may appreciate Framerate Police's advice as to which games are locked to 30fps and how to unlock them. Or, like us, you might enjoy the humorous-yet-short reviews by Critiquing Doge. There are Steam Curators that cover just about every kind of game imaginable and in every language possible on Steam.

Whatever your tastes, and whatever language you speak, you can probably find a few great Steam Curators to curate your Steam shopping experience.

Why Follow A Curator?
By following a few Curators on Steam, you'll not only start to see their recommendations appear prominently when browsing the Steam Store (such as at the top of your home page and at the top of tag and genre pages), but you can also explore each of their customized spaces within Steam and see all the titles they have reviewed. For example, we've built some new tools for Curators to create lists of games and then pick which lists to feature on their page. Some Steam Curators produce video reviews of the games they play, and now you'll start seeing those videos displayed right within Steam.

What Else?
In addition to a bunch of improvements for players that follow a few Curators, we've been hard at work making the system work better for Steam Curators themselves as well as game developers looking to connect with Curators. We've given Curators more ways to customize their page on Steam and more information about how players are impacted by their reviews. We've also introduced a whole new system called Curator Connect that provides game developers with a way of sending review copies of their game directly to Curators within Steam.

Available Today
Check out the Steam Curator Update Announcement page to learn more about today's update. These updates are available now, and we'll be continuing work on Steam Curators with your feedback and input.

As always, if you have any feedback or suggestions, please let us know.

-The Steam Team
- Kurtis
As of today, Steam will no longer support Bitcoin as a payment method on our platform due to high fees and volatility in the value of Bitcoin.

In the past few months we've seen an increase in the volatility in the value of Bitcoin and a significant increase in the fees to process transactions on the Bitcoin network. For example, transaction fees that are charged to the customer by the Bitcoin network have skyrocketed this year, topping out at close to $20 a transaction last week (compared to roughly $0.20 when we initially enabled Bitcoin). Unfortunately, Valve has no control over the amount of the fee. These fees result in unreasonably high costs for purchasing games when paying with Bitcoin. The high transaction fees cause even greater problems when the value of Bitcoin itself drops dramatically.

Historically, the value of Bitcoin has been volatile, but the degree of volatility has become extreme in the last few months, losing as much as 25% in value over a period of days. This creates a problem for customers trying to purchase games with Bitcoin. When checking out on Steam, a customer will transfer x amount of Bitcoin for the cost of the game, plus y amount of Bitcoin to cover the transaction fee charged by the Bitcoin network. The value of Bitcoin is only guaranteed for a certain period of time so if the transaction doesn’t complete within that window of time, then the amount of Bitcoin needed to cover the transaction can change. The amount it can change has been increasing recently to a point where it can be significantly different.

The normal resolution for this is to either refund the original payment to the user, or ask the user to transfer additional funds to cover the remaining balance. In both these cases, the user is hit with the Bitcoin network transaction fee again. This year, we’ve seen increasing number of customers get into this state. With the transaction fee being so high right now, it is not feasible to refund or ask the customer to transfer the missing balance (which itself runs the risk of underpayment again, depending on how much the value of Bitcoin changes while the Bitcoin network processes the additional transfer).

At this point, it has become untenable to support Bitcoin as a payment option. We may re-evaluate whether Bitcoin makes sense for us and for the Steam community at a later date.

We will continue working to resolve any pending issues for customers who are impacted by existing underpayments or transaction fees.

-- The Steam Team
- Alden
A few weeks ago, we posted a blog post describing some of our thinking about user reviews, some tools we added, and some of the next areas we were planning on addressing. If you haven't yet, it's worth a read to understand our thinking about reviews and the goals we think user reviews should be addressing.

Today we're making a few more improvements to user reviews to address some concerns and feedback that we've been hearing, and to ensure that the system remains a useful tool for you to identify games that you will enjoy. In this update, we're focusing on how we determine the helpful reviews you see on each game's page and the order in which they are shown.

What is a helpful review
Reviews should help paint a picture of what it's like to play the game and how well the game has been enjoyed by the people who have already played it. A good review typically describes some of the factors that directly impact the experience of playing the game, which can include a wide variety of things like how well the matchmaking works, how buggy the game is, or whether the game represents a good value for the price.

While everyone that has played a game probably has opinions on how much they enjoyed the game or not, some people are better than others at writing thoughtful descriptions that are useful for other potential players. We think it's fine for players to be able to indicate whether they liked a game or not, but not every review is useful to show in greater detail. A helpful review then is one that includes enough information to aid in your understanding of whether you are likely to find the game fun, or whether you should avoid the game and explore more alternatives.

As of this writing, there are over 36,579,839 reviews posted by players across all of Steam. Some games have a handful of user reviews while others have hundreds of thousands. Regardless of the number of reviews, we want to make sure that the most helpful and relevant reviews are the ones that you see first when you are looking at a game's page in the Steam store.

Sorting helpful reviews
Below each review you've probably seen the question of "did you find this review helpful?" along with a set of buttons to indicate yes or no. You can use these controls whether you have already purchased the game or not, because it is usually prior to purchase that you are looking at user reviews and considering which of them are helpful in making your purchase decision.

These inputs are then used to determine which reviews people generally find most helpful. Up to now, our system simply looked at how many people had rated each review as 'helpful' and how many people had rated it as 'not helpful' and then highlighted the ten reviews that the most percentage of people found helpful. Since games can change (sometimes dramatically) over time, we introduced a change a while ago that prioritizes showing recently-posted helpful reviews, as they are more likely to reflect the current state of the game. Of course these are just the defaults that are shown on a store page, and you can still easily browse all of the reviews for a particular game if you want to investigate further.

In a perfect world, people would truthfully mark a few reviews that were helpful for deciding to purchase or not purchase the game and we could use that data to directly determine the ten most helpful reviews. Alas, it turns out that not everyone is as helpful as we would like. Instead, we are seeing more and more feedback from players that the helpful reviews shown on store pages aren't representative of how well people are actually enjoying the game.

Taking a closer look
So we took a closer look at the patterns and behaviors of people that are rating reviews. Of the 11 million people that have used the helpful buttons, most follow a reasonable pattern of usage: Typical players rate a few reviews as helpful or unhelpful while deciding whether to make a purchase. However, we found a small set of users on the far extreme that are clearly trying to accomplish something quite different from normal players, and are rating more than 10,000 reviews as helpful or unhelpful on a single game. This behavior is not only humanly impossible, but definitely not a thoughtful indication of how 'helpful' each of those reviews were. These users also tend to rate up just the negative reviews while rating down the positive reviews (or vice-versa) in an attempt to distort which reviews are shown by default.

Because of how many reviews these users are rating, they each have a disproportionate amount of influence over the display of helpful reviews and cause certain reviews to appear more prominently than they should be. This can result in a confusing appearance where the default set of reviews shown are negative, even when most players have posted positive reviews and clearly enjoy the game.

What we are changing
Up to this point, we've tried to maintain just showing the simple math behind how we calculate whether a review is helpful or not--the percentage and number of people who indicated a review as helpful. We like systems that are transparent and easy to understand, as they are also easier to believe and trust. Unfortunately, this has resulted in a system that allows a small group to manipulate reviews to a degree that is clearly decreasing the value of Steam for many other players. So we're making two main changes.
  1. Firstly, our system will use a new method of calculating the helpfulness of each review, taking into account the users that are trying to manipulate the system. One way we're doing that is by counting the helpful ratings on reviews differently for users that are far outside the norm. Ratings from users that follow normal patterns of rating will continue to be counted the same way that they have, whereas accounts that rate an excessive number of reviews on an individual game will see the weight of each individual rating count for less and less.
  2. Secondly, store pages will now show the default helpful positive and negative reviews in a similar proportion to that of the overall review score for the game. For example, if the game is reviewed positively by 80% of reviewers, then the ten reviews shown by default on the store page will be 80% positive, showing eight positive and two negative. This should keep the reviews shown on a game's page from being so easily manipulated by a few determined players and should more accurately represent the overall sentiment of the people playing the game.
We're rolling out both of these changes as a beta today. You can turn the new method on and off to see how it impacts the default display of reviews on any given store page. Note that these changes only impact the default listing of reviews (Called "Summary") and the "Most Helpful" display option.

Still much more to do
There are still a number of further changes we're considering for the user review system. One thing we're looking at, is how review scores on games change over time as games develop or languish, and ways to better indicate how players are enjoying the game right now. We also want to better indicate when players are reviewing issues in a game that only pertain to a particular region (such as server locations), or particular language (such as poor translations). We're also exploring ways to calculate a personalized review score for each player and thinking about how that would look.

We know the review system is important for players and developers and we're going to continue making improvements to ensure that user reviews remain useful and trustworthy. Please let us know your thoughts on these latest changes.

-The Steam Team
- Alden
For the past few months we've been busy working on significant improvements and additions to the Steam Curator system. There's still some work to be done before we can roll these out, but we wanted to share a bit about why we see Steam Curators as a crucial component to exploring Steam, and what changes we're making.

Why Steam Curators?
We've heard from many of you that you want to have a more curated experience when shopping Steam; where the titles that are surfaced and recommended and highlighted are picked by humans that you know and trust. But, we also know that players have different tastes in games, so it's unlikely that any single person or group could cater to the specific interests of every player in the world. This is why we believe that Valve can't be the only form of curation in Steam - we would be under serving the tastes and viewpoints of many players.

So, we're focusing on how to support the streamers, journalists, critics, content creators, writers, enthusiasts, and friends that you already know and trust to be able to help you find your next favorite game. By following a few Curators on Steam, you'll not only start to see their recommendations appear prominently when browsing the Steam Store, but you can also explore each of their customized spaces within Steam and see all the titles they have reviewed.

Using the Steam Curator features on Steam is an opt-in thing. If you’re not interested in the opinions of human beings helping you find games that are worth your attention, then we also have some powerful features coming just for you. We’re hard at work on significant improvements to the core recommendation engine which algorithmically suggests games for all Steam users. We’re anxious to talk in depth about that technology too, and will do so in a future blog post.

What changes are coming?
Over the three years since introduction of Steam Curators, we've gathered a lot of feedback from all kinds of perspectives. We've heard from players, from curators, from streamers, from game developers, and from all kinds of other tastemakers and content creators. The feedback is clear that the system needs to do a bunch of things better in order to work well for the three primary sets of people it's trying to serve: players, curators, and game developers.

This system really only works if players find value from following some Curators. So we're adding to the kinds of content that Curators are able to create, and increasing the places within Steam where that content can be seen.
  • Recommendations provided by Steam Curators can already appear in the main featured spot on your Steam Home page as well as in a dedicated space on your home page. We're building on this so that recommendations by Curators you follow will also show up at the top of tag and genre pages. This means as you explore, say the Free To Play page, you'll see recommendations from your Curators for Free to Play games. If you are browsing RPG games, you'll see RPG games featured from Curators you follow. And so forth.
  • Many Curators create videos to accompany their reviews, so we'll now start embedding those videos in a few places alongside the curation. This means that when you click through a recommendation, or when you browse a Curator's page on Steam, you'll be able to watch their videos in-line.
  • We also know that some Curators will review games within certain themes, genres, or franchises. So, we're adding a new feature for Curators to create lists of games they've reviewed that go together. These can be used to create lists such as "best couch co-op games", "games with amazing Workshop support", "games by my favorite designer", "10 games to play while waiting for Witcher 4", or any other set of interesting ways to organize groups of games.
  • And if you are looking to find new new Curators that share your tastes, or offer unique information about particular kinds of games, you can explore the 'Recommended Curators' or 'Top Curators' lists. We're fine-tuning the 'Recommended Curators' section to more accurately suggest Curators who recommend games like those you've been playing.

One of the pieces of feedback we received from Curators was that they felt it needed to be more rewarding and meaningful for a Curator to spend the time it takes to build and maintain their curation. So there are a few new things we're building to tackle this.
  • As we mentioned above, Curators that produce videos as part of their reviews will be see those videos embedded right next to their review in Steam. If you're a Curator who's already doing work to create content elsewhere, we want you to be able to use that work in your Steam curation. This means a few of the most popular video formats such as YouTube,,, and will appear right in Steam where players can easily watch them.
  • Curators will be able to customize and brand their home on Steam by selecting games, lists, and tags to feature and by uploading a personalized background.
  • We all know that graphs solve everything, so yes, we're adding more of them. In particular, Curators will be able to see how their reviews impacted their follower's behavior in the Steam store.
  • We are helping connect developers with Curators that are most likely to have relevant audience of followers for the developers' game. More on this below.

Game Developers
We've heard from many developers that they need a way of getting their game in front of Curators that have the right audience for that game, and to be able to do it in a way that is easy and secure. We've also heard from Curators that it can be a challenge to reach out to developers, who are often swamped with requests that they can't easily filter through. So we've built a whole new system that we are calling Curator Connect.

With Curator Connect, developers can search for appropriate Curators, and then send a copy of their game directly through Steam. We've added a number of tools for finding relevant Curators and for identifying the forms of social impact that Curator may have. To start with, developers will be able to search the listings of Steam Curators, narrowing results by name, OS, language, or tags that the Curator indicates they focus on. In the results, developers will be able to see a snapshot of each Curator, including follower counts and any linked social media accounts such as YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and Twitch, which can help verify that the Curator is truly who they claim to be. The developer can then build a list of the Curators they wish to send their game to, include a message describing their game, and hit 'send'.

Curators can then browse a list of games that have been sent to them and can choose to accept or decline as they wish. Accepted games are added to that Curators Steam library to play and review. No need to mess with keys or e-mail.

Next Steps
Today we're starting a closed beta with a few dozen Steam Curators of different sizes, niches, and languages. This gives us an opportunity to gather feedback and suggestions from Curators and gives those Curators an opportunity to use the new tools to prepare and personalize their store pages ahead of full release. The Steam Curators that are invited to participate in the beta are free to share their thoughts publicly, so you may see some screenshots or write-ups from these Curators as they explore the new features and discuss them with the community.

We're aiming to run the beta for at least a couple weeks with just the Curators before releasing the update to everyone. Hopefully this blog post helps you understand what we're trying to do, and why, which we believe will help everyone to have a fruitful conversation.

As always, if you have any feedback or suggestions, please let us know.

-The Steam Team
- Blue
Steam Digital Gift Cards are now available, making it even easier to send the perfect gift to your friends.

Steam Digital Gift Cards make it fast and easy to send your friends Steam Wallet funds toward the purchase of anything on Steam, from software to hardware, including games and in-game items.

This expands on Steam’s single-game digital gift service and retail gift cards, which are available from hundreds of retailers around the world.

To purchase a Digital Gift Card, sign into your Steam account, select an amount and a friend, and Steam will deliver your gift with a personalized message directly to their Steam account.

For more information, please visit

Sep 20, 2017
- Alden
We've been planning some changes to User Reviews for a while now, and we thought it'd be useful to give you some insight into our thinking on review bombing, which is one of the problems we're tackling. Review bombing is where players post a large number of reviews in a very compressed time frame, aimed at lowering the Review Score of a game. At the same time, they upvote each other's reviews and downvote all the other reviews. To understand why we think this is a problem at all, we first need to talk a bit about the goals of User Reviews, and the associated Review Score.

For User Reviews, the goal is fairly obvious - allow people who've played a game to tell potential purchasers whether or not they should buy the game, and why. When we first implemented reviews, we hoped their existence would be enough. But it became clear very quickly that many potential purchasers wanted a summary of some kind, so we created the Review Score. It shows you the ratio of positive to negative reviews for the people who've purchased the game, and from that, it has the goal of trying to provide a potential purchaser with an estimate of how likely it is that they'll be happy with that purchase.

So why is review bombing a problem? On the one hand, the players doing the bombing are fulfilling the goal of User Reviews - they're voicing their opinion as to why other people shouldn't buy the game. But one thing we've noticed is that the issue players are concerned about can often be outside the game itself. It might be that they're unhappy with something the developer has said online, or about choices the developer has made in the Steam version of their game relative to other platforms, or simply that they don't like the developer's political convictions. Many of these out-of-game issues aren't very relevant when it comes to the value of the game itself, but some of them are real reasons why a player may be unhappy with their purchase.

When it comes to the Review Score itself, however, it's even less clear that these out-of-game reasons are relevant. When we look at what happens with the Review Score after a review bomb, we see that it generally recovers, in some cases fully back to where it was beforehand. We took some time to examine the data more closely, measuring the weekly positive-to-negative ratio of new reviews in the time periods around the review bomb, it was even clearer - the review bomb ends up being a temporary distortion of the Review Score.

This implies that, while the review bombers were unhappy with a decision the developer made, the purchasers of the product afterwards were often as happy with the game as the players before them. In the cases where the Review Score didn't return fully to its prior level, we believe the issue behind the review bomb genuinely did affect the happiness of future purchasers of the game, and ended up being accurately reflected in the regular ongoing reviews submitted by new purchasers. In some review bomb cases, the developers made changes in response to the community dissatisfaction, and in others they didn't - but there didn't seem to be much correlation between whether they did and what happened to their Review Score afterwards.

In short, review bombs make it harder for the Review Score to achieve its goal of accurately representing the likelihood that you'd be happy with your purchase if you bought a game. We thought it would be good to fix that, if we could do it in a way that didn't stop players from being able to voice their opinions.

So what solutions did we explore? An obvious one would be to simply remove the Review Score. Then, as a potential customer you'd be forced to read the User Reviews themselves to see if the product sounded interesting. If you saw reviews talking about something outside the scope of the game, you could decide for yourself if it was an issue that would affect your happiness with the purchase. Unfortunately, we're pretty certain that this isn't really an option - scores were added in response to player demand in the past, and that demand for a summary of some kind is likely to still be there, even if players know it isn't always accurate.

Another idea was a temporary lock on reviewing, similar to how stock markets prevent trading on specific stocks when abnormal behavior is detected. Based on the theory that review bombs are temporary distortions, we could prevent reviews for short periods of time whenever we detect massive distortions in submissions. In the cases where the cause of the community's dissatisfaction truly affects the game's potential happiness to new customers, we're confident it would still result in the Review Score moving down after the lock period ended.

But if we lock reviews on a product for a short period of time, what does that mean exactly? Are players no longer able to post reviews at all during that time? Or should they be able to post them, but we ignore them for the purpose of calculating the Review Score? In the end, we didn't like the way this ultimately meant restricting the ability for players to voice their opinions. We don't want to stop the community having a discussion about the issue they're unhappy about, even though there are probably better places to have that conversation than in Steam User Reviews.

We could change the way the Review Score is calculated, focusing on much more recent data. One of the reasons a review bomb can distort a game's Review Score for a significant period of time is because the score is based on reviews over a period of 30 days for the Recent value, and all time for the Overall value. But doing this would likely result in more fluctuation and potentially less accuracy for all games, not just review bombed ones.

In the end, we decided not to change the ways that players can review games, and instead focused on how potential purchasers can explore the review data. Starting today, each game page now contains a histogram of the positive to negative ratio of reviews over the entire lifetime of the game, and by clicking on any part of the histogram you're able to read a sample of the reviews from that time period. As a potential purchaser, it's easy to spot temporary distortions in the reviews, to investigate why that distortion occurred, and decide for yourself whether it's something you care about. This approach has the advantage of never preventing anyone from submitting a review, but does require slightly more effort on the part of potential purchasers.

It also has the benefit of allowing you to see how a game's reviews have evolved over time, which is great for games that are operating as services. One subtlety that's not obvious at first is that most games slowly trend downwards over time, even if they haven't changed in any way. We think this makes sense when you realize that, generally speaking, earlier purchasers of a game are more likely to enjoy it than later purchasers. In the pool of players who are interested in a game, the ones who are more confident that they'll like the game will buy it first, so as time goes on the potential purchasers left are less and less certain that they'll like the game. So if you see a game's reviews trending up over time, it may be an even more powerful statement about the quality of work its developers are doing.

Hopefully this post has been useful. It's quite possible that we'll need to revisit this when we move to personalized review scores, where our prediction of your happiness with a purchase is based upon the games you've enjoyed in the past. In the meantime, we'll keep a close eye on the community conversation around reviews.
- JacobU
When we first created the Steam Community groups, the community itself was a smaller and simpler place. We wanted to give players on Steam an easy way to find other people with the same interests, coordinate their activities, and share their creative output. To that end, we made the tools and systems for joining and managing groups as simple as we could. When there were few great tools for discovering user groups, sending direct invites offered a way to spread awareness and build communities. But as the Steam Community has grown this approach to invites has not kept up with the needs of players. There are now many more ways to discover new and interesting groups and the invite system has been abused by more and more organized spammers.

So today we are changing the invite-and-join process for private groups, and taking steps to address spam.

Joining a group
In the past, you could create a group that is either publicly joinable by anyone, or private and accessible only by invitation. Private groups are used for a variety of purposes, some of which make sense to restrict only to invites. For example, if you just want a group for your close friends to hang out and chat, then an invite-only group makes sense. But there are many more scenarios where private groups have some form of stated criteria to join, such as “Steam Level 1,000 Club” or “Mod Makers Club”. Invites directly into these kinds of groups still make sense, but getting an invitation for qualified people is more complicated and messy than it needed to be.

So, we’re adding a new group type that will allow users to request to join the group. Requests are then put into a list for one of the group moderators to approve or deny. There are now three types of community groups:
  • Public group – Users can join on their own or via an invite from a friend.
  • Restricted group – Users can join by requesting membership. They can also receive an invite from a user that has permission to add members.
  • Closed group – This is the most restricted group. Users can only join via invites by members who have permission to send invites. Users cannot request to join these groups.
To join a restricted group, you can now request entry into the group. This will put you into a list for the group admins to review and decide whether to approve or deny your request.

Group admin tools
Any group that was previously a “Private group” will be converted to a “Restricted group”, which will allow users to request to join your group. This can be changed any time by the group owner. If your group is currently set to “Restricted” and you change the type to “Closed”, we’ll go ahead and decline any pending requests to join your group. Subsequently, if you change your group from "Restricted" to "Public" we'll approve all pending requests.

By default, only the group owner is able to approve/deny requests to join a restricted group. Group owners can allow officers or moderators to invite and approve/deny membership requests to a group via a new section under “Group Permissions”.

To manage pending group requests, group owners (or officers/moderators if given permission) can find the new Manage Group Requests page from their admin tools section on the right-hand side of the group page:

If you are invited to a restricted or closed group, you will skip the membership queue and become a member once you accept the invite. If you have been denied entry into a group, the only way for you to join in the future is to get an invite from a member who has invite permissions.

Limits to group invites
Over time, we have seen the use of group invites shift from helpful to spammy - to the point where they can become annoying and disruptive to players. As we looked close at what these invites are being used for, we found some interesting and troubling trends.

First off, we see that more and more organized spammers are using bots to create groups on a huge scale. At some times, the number of new groups created explicitly for spamming outweigh the legitimate groups. Once a spammer has created a bunch of new groups, they then use bots to invite random players into the group. Even if only a small percentage of players that were invited end up joining any one of these groups, the spammer still can end up with a significant audience. The spammers then use these groups to advertise various websites or offers by posting frequent announcements to the members.

Players are understandably annoyed by these spam invites from random users.

To address this, you can now only be invited into a group by your friends. This still maintains the common uses of forming a closed group to hang out with your friends, or creating a restricted group for people of similar interests or achievements.

Next Steps
These new features and improvements should make it easier to join groups that you are interested in while eliminating the spam group invites that show up in your Steam inbox. Over the next few weeks, we'll also be working on identifying and banning networks of groups that have been mass-created and exist for the sole purpose of spamming.

We're also working on improvements to the way that friend invites work to make it easier to connect with the people you know and give you more control over invites.

-The Steam Team

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