Feb, 2012 Starbound officially announced. Slated release is "summer 2012" *No beta is planned.
Jan, 2013 - CF fails to meet its estimated 2012 release date for Starbound.
Feb, 2013 - Ship upgrades are talked about by the developers and progress on them is shown. Tier3 is complete on one race.
Apr, 2013 - Pre-Orders for Starbound open. They put up a faq, along with pre-order bonus goals. These are: Starter pets, Fossils, Novakid race.
Apr, 2013 - At this point beta is not the release slated for 2013. It was "when it is ready". Release was 2013, period.
Apr, 2013 - All pre-order stretch goals are achieved. CF comments on surprise of raising one million in the first month alone.
Sep, 2013 - CF attends a Euro-gaming i49 convention, flying the team over for the span of roughly two weeks. Starbound world premier is given by Yogscast.
Oct, 2013 - CF edits the faq to remove questionable statements regarding release from it. Release time is changed to reflect the new "beta" in 2013 goal.
*The second and last are noteworthy as being from Tiy himself.
Oct, 2013 - CF uses the first phrasing of "thick and fast" to describe phase one of beta. (Content that follows koala versions is mostly art assets.)
Dec, 2013 - CF releases the beta. Several quick patches are implemented but it is generally regarded as smooth release aside from forum and OS issues.
Dec, 2013 - CF abandons the 100 planet level system for a 10. Same content, minus Armor Penetration. One of the largest mechanics changes to date.
Jan, 2014 - CF fails to meet the 2013 full release estimate for Starbound. This is not the first time such a date is not met.
Jan 2014 - At the end of the month the developers release the next patch. Furious Koala. Stutter issue "fixed", but still reported by many.
Feb, 2014 - CF decides to remove universe sectors compressing all the same content into one single sector. (Not implemented yet.)
Feb, 2014 - At time of writing, last koala version. Is focused on preventing wipes ever again. Updates after this patch, can be pushed as soon as completed.
Feb, 2014 - Hotfixs for enraged become problematic resulting in five releases back to back.
Feb, 2014 - Unstable branch is introduced promising even faster updates for those willing to risk the issues involved. Mostly art asset updates follow.
Feb, 2014 - Mods are promised to be added frequently and the office to help speed productivity. Skyrail and Asteroid belts are added, then no others to my knowledge.
Feb, 2014 - CF lays out a document promising features. Begins laying foundation for work on another selfpublished game at the same, and office work.
Feb, 2014 - "beta updates should happen a lot more frequently - think several times a week instead of once every one or two weeks", and more office work.
Mar, 2014 - Weather is expanded in small art & coding updates in unstable branch during the month. Currently only affects events near the player.
Apr, 2014 - Work on the office continues. Ship upgrades mentioned last year, continue to be talked about.
Apr, First week of - Ship upgrades still MIA, other big mechanic changes still not completed. Work focus shifts to monster parts. Koala remains unchanged.
I would like to take this space to give an apology for the rudimentary nature of this. Many answers given by Chucklefish have been phrased in a less then forthright way and across dozens of sources including ones that can't be linked such as TwitchTV. Furthering the problem is that things have simply been deleted or lost beyond the means of even the wayback to find. Just be aware everything I have stated is backed up by easily confirmed facts. Simply follow the links and view for yourself.